Please click on the album picture to view my personal Library collection on : Verhaegen Marc / Eureducation

 

 

Marc Verhaegen / Eureducation

 
The EurEducation Foundation was established on 28 October 2005 by Jan Kragt and Marc Verhaegen.
The objective of the Foundation is inter alia
‘ ForYoung people in Europe to share  eachother’s culture and history.’
Knowledge and respect for each other’s culture is the core where the world revolves.
Without it, people lose themselves fast in prejudices.
That goes for adults, but indeed for young people.
By means of comic strips and other media  Eureducation Foundation tries
to inform young people and to make them think.
Gripping stories, action, humor and fantastic character work
are the important ingredients to reach that.
 
 

Marc Verhaegen

(Marver, Xao Pi)

(b. 5/4/1957, Belgium)

Michiel de Ruyter by Marc Verhaegen
Michiel de Ruyter

While attending a regular school, Marc Verhaegen also took courses in drawing at the Academy of Kontich when he was only 10 years old. He eventually went to study at the Saint-Luc Institute, where he specialized in animation film. He did his first comics work in the underground scene, producing comics with the character ‘Fil Marver’ (some in cooperation with Eric Leeraar) and the bicycle-racing comic ‘Cycloman’ (also with Leeraar), which he signed with the pseudonym Marver.

Cycloman, by Marver (Marc Verhaegen)
Cycloman

He got a job as an animator, and collaborated on several projects, such as the ‘Wonderland’ show for the BRT and short animation sequences for ‘Sesame Street’. Since Verhaegen wanted to do something different, he was glad to hear from a friend that the Standaard Uitgeverij was looking for an artist to draw the comic series ‘Boes’.

Vicky, by Marver (Marc Verhaegen)
Vicky

He did this from 1987 to 1988, after which he joined the Vandersteen Studios to work on the famous ‘Suske en Wiske’ series. He started out writing some short stories, which were followed by his first long story, ‘De Krakende Carcas’, in 1992. He was also present in the Suske en Wiske Weekblad, where he started the new series ‘Calpako’ in 1996. Under the pseudonym Xao Pi, he also made a number of gags of the series ‘Ted en Fred’ for the weekly.

Suske en Wiske - Papa Razzi, by Marver (Marc Verhaegen)
Suske en Wiske – Papa Razzi

In April, 2002, Verhaegen succeeded Paul Geerts as the regular artist/writer on the ‘Suske en Wiske’ comic. He made a couple of trilogies and some independent stories, until he was fired from the studios in February 2005. The studios stated that Verhaegen wasn’t capable of working in a team, but there was also a conflict about his choice of subjects.

Suske en Wiske by Marc Verhaegen
Suske en Wiske – De Ongelooflijke Thomas

Verhaegen wanted to make a story about a girl that died in Auschwitz. After his discharge, he used the World War II theme for his next project, the first album of the ‘Senne en Sanne’ strip, which was published in a supplement of Kidsweek. All in all, Verhaegen’s run on ‘Suske en Wiske’ was often controversial.

Suske en Wiske, by Marc Verhaegen

He was the artist that introduced a more modern look for the characters, which was widely discussed in the media, especially Wiske’s sexy new shirt. He also made a story in an alternate future where Lambik and Sidonia have a child, which according to Vandersteen’s will should never happen (‘De Ongelooflijke Thomas’).

Senne en Sanne, by Marc Verhaegen
Senne en Sanne – Rebecca R

Verhaegen made three ‘Senne en Sanne’ stories until 2007. In 2007 he began the Eureducation foundation with Jan Kragt. The first educational comics projects they made was ‘Het Geheim van Michiel de Ruyter’, and it was followed by ‘De Vliegende Hollander’ (2008), ‘Oorlogswonden’ (also published as ‘V-Bommen op Antwerpen’, 2008), ‘Strijd om New York’ (2009) and ‘Vincent van Gogh’ (2011).

Oorlogswonden by Marc VerhaegenVincent van Gogh by Marc Verhaegen
 
 

Comic Book nr. 1 : About… Michiel de Ruyter

 
 
Bol, Michiel de Ruyter.jpg
Michiel de Ruyter painted by Ferdinand Bol in 1667
Nickname Bestevaêr
Born 24 March 1607
Flushing, Zeeland, Dutch Republic
Died 29 April 1676(1676-04-29) (aged 69)
Bay of Syracuse (Fatally wounded by a cannonball during the Battle of Agosta)
Buried at Nieuwe Kerk, Amsterdam
Allegiance Dutch Republic
Service/branch Navy
Years of service 1637–1676
Battles/wars First Anglo-Dutch War
Battle of Plymouth
Battle of the Kentish Knock
Battle of Dungeness
Battle of Portland
Battle of the Gabbard
Battle of Scheveningen
Second Anglo-Dutch War
Four Days Battle
St. James’s Day Battle
Raid on the Medway
Third Anglo-Dutch War
Battle of Solebay
Battle of Schooneveld
Franco-Dutch War
Battle of Texel
Battle of Stromboli
Battle of Agosta

Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter ( 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is the most famous and one of the most skilled admirals in Dutch history. De Ruyter is most famous for his role in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century. He fought the English and French and scored several major victories against them, the best known probably being the Raid on the Medway. The pious De Ruyter was very much loved by his sailors and soldiers; from them his most significant nickname derived: Bestevaêr (older Dutch for ‘grandfather’.)

Contents

  

Early life

De Ruyter was born in 1607 in Flushing (Vlissingen) as the son of beer porter Adriaen Michielszoon and Aagje Jansdochter[1] Little is known about De Ruyter’s early life, but he probably became a sailor at the age of 11. In 1622 he fought as a musketeer in the Dutch army under Maurice of Nassau against the Spaniards during the relief of Bergen-op-Zoom. That same year he rejoined the Dutch merchant fleet and steadily worked his way up. According to English sources he was active in Dublin between 1623 and 1631 as an agent for the Vlissingen-based merchant house of the Lampsins brothers. Although Dutch sources have no data about his whereabouts in those years, it is known that De Ruyter spoke Irish fluently. He would occasionally travel as supercargo to the Mediterranean or the Barbary Coast. In those years he usually referred to himself as “Machgyel Adriensoon”, his name in the Zealandic dialect he spoke, not having yet adopted the name “De Ruyter”. “De Ruyter” most probably was a nickname given to him. An explanation might be found in the meaning of the older Dutch verb ruyten or ruiten which means “to raid”, something De Ruyter was known to do as a privateer with the Lampsins ship Den Graeuwen Heynst.

In 1631 he married a farmer’s daughter named Maayke Velders. The marriage lasted until the end of the year 1631 when Maayke died after giving birth to a daughter who followed her mother in death three weeks later.[2]

In 1633 and 1635 De Ruyter sailed as a navigating officer aboard the ship Groene Leeuw (Green Lion) on whaling expeditions to Jan Mayen. At this point he did not yet have a command of his own. In the summer of 1636 he remarried, this time to a daughter of a wealthy burgher named Neeltje Engels, who would give him four children. One of these died shortly after birth, the others were named Adriaen (1637), Neeltje (1639) and Aelken (1642).

In the midst of this, in 1637, De Ruyter became captain of a private ship meant to hunt for raiders operating from Dunkirk who were preying on Dutch merchant shipping. He fulfilled this task until 1640. After sailing for a while as schipper (skipper) of a merchant vessel named de Vlissinge, he was contacted again by the Zeeland Admiralty to become captain of the Haze, a merchant ship turned man-of-war carrying 26 guns in a fleet under admiral Gijsels fighting the Spanish, teaming up with the Portuguese during their rebellion.

A Dutch fleet, with De Ruyter as third in command, beat back a Spanish-Dunkirker fleet in an action off Cape St Vincent on 4 November 1641. After returning he bought his own ship, the Salamander, and between 1642 and 1652, he mainly traded and travelled to Morocco and the West Indies to amass wealth as a merchant. During this time his esteem grew among other Dutch captains as he would regularly free Christian slaves by redeeming them at his own expense.

In 1650 De Ruyter’s wife, who in 1649 had given him a second son named Engel, unexpectedly died. On 8 January 1652 he married the widow Anna van Gelder and decided the time had come to retire. He bought a house in Flushing, but his blissful family life would not last long.

First Anglo-Dutch War

During the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652–1654), De Ruyter was asked to join the expanding fleet as a subcommander of a Zealandic squadron of “director’s ships”: privately financed warships. After initially refusing,[3] De Ruyter proved his worth under supreme commander Lieutenant-Admiral (the nominal rank of Admiral-General was reserved for the stadtholder but at the time none was appointed) Maarten Tromp, winning the Battle of Plymouth against Vice-Admiral George Ayscue. He also fought at the Battle of Kentish Knock and the Battle of the Gabbard. De Ruyter functioned as a squadron commander, being referred to as a Commodore, which at the time was not an official rank in the Dutch navy.

Tromp’s death during the Battle of Scheveningen ended the war and De Ruyter declined an emphatic offer from Johan de Witt for supreme command, because he considered himself ‘unfit’[4] and also feared that bypassing the seniority principle would bring him into conflict with Witte de With and Johan Evertsen. Later De Ruyter and De Witt would become personal friends. Colonel Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam then became the new Dutch supreme commander of the confederate fleet. De Ruyter – after refusing to become Obdam’s naval ‘advisor’[5] – remained in service of the Dutch navy however and later accepted an offer from the admiralty of Amsterdam to become their Vice-Admiral on 2 March 1654. He relocated with his family to the city in 1655.

1655–1663

In July 1655 De Ruyter took command of a squadron of eight of which the Tijdverdrijf was his flagship and set out for the Mediterranean with 55 merchantmen in convoy. His orders were to protect Dutch trade. Meeting an English fleet under Robert Blake along the way, he managed to avoid creating a new flag incident. Operating off the Barbary Coast he captured several infamous corsairs and having negotiated a peace agreement with Salé, De Ruyter returned home May 1656.

The same month the States-General, becoming ever more wary of Swedish king Charles X and his expansion plans, decided to intervene in the Northern Wars by sending a fleet to the Baltic Sea. The Swedes controlled this area after Charles had invaded Poland and made himself king there. De Ruyter once again embarked on the Tijdverdrijf arriving in the Sound 8 June; there he waited for Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam to arrive. After Obdam had assumed command De Ruyter and the Dutch fleet sailed to relieve the besieged city of Danzig/Gdańsk on 27 July, without any bloodshed. Peace was signed a month later. Before leaving the Baltic De Ruyter and other flag-officers were granted audience by Frederick III of Denmark. De Ruyter took a liking to the Danish king who would later become a personal friend.

In 1658 the States-General under the advice of a leading member, (one of the) mayors of Amsterdam Cornelis de Graeff decided to once again send a fleet to the Baltic Sea to protect the important Baltic trade and to aid the Danes against Swedish aggression, continued despite a peace settlement. In accordance with the States’ balance of power politics a fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam was sent, without De Ruyter, who at the time was blockading Lisbon. On 8 November a bloody melee took place: the Battle of the Sound, which resulted in a Dutch victory, relieving Copenhagen. Still the Swedes were far from defeated and the States decided to continue their support. De Ruyter took command of a new expeditionary fleet and managed to liberate Nyborg in 1659. For this he was knighted by the Danish king Frederick III of Denmark[6] From 1661 until 1663 De Ruyter had convoy duty in the Mediterranean.

Second Anglo-Dutch War

Battle Council On The Zeven Provinciën, 10 June 1666 by Willem van de Velde, the younger, 1666

In 1664, a year before the Second Anglo-Dutch War officially began, he clashed with the English off the West African coast, where both the English and Dutch had significant slave stations, retaking the Dutch possessions occupied by Robert Holmes and then crossing the Atlantic to raid the English colonies in North America.

Arriving off Barbados in the Caribbean at the end of April 1665 aboard his flagship Spiegel, he led his fleet of thirteen vessels into Carlisle Bay, exchanging fire with the English batteries and destroying many of the vessels anchored there.[7] Unable to silence the English guns and having sustained considerable damage to his own vessels, he retired to French Martinique for repairs.

Sailing north from Martinique, de Ruyter captured several English vessels and delivered supplies to the Dutch colony at Sint Eustatius. Given the damage he had sustained, he decided against an assault on New York (the former New Amsterdam) to retake New Netherland. He then took off to Newfoundland, capturing some English merchant ships and temporarily taking St. John’s[citation needed] before proceeding to Europe.

Embarkment of De Ruyter and De Witt at Texel, 1667 by Eugène Isabey

On his return to The Netherlands he learned that Van Wassenaer had been killed in the disastrous Battle of Lowestoft. Many expected that Tromp’s son Cornelis would now take command of the confederate fleet, especially Cornelis Tromp himself, who had already been given a temporary commission.[8] Tromp however was not acceptable to the regent regime of Johan de Witt because of his support of the Prince of Orange’s cause. De Ruyter’s popularity had grown after his heroic return and, most importantly, his affiliation lay with the States-General and Johan de Witt in particular. He therefore was made commander of the Dutch fleet on 11 August 1665, as Lieutenant-Admiral (a rank he at the time shared with six others) of the Amsterdam admiralty.

In this Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667) he won a hard-fought victory in the Four Days Battle (June 1666) but narrowly escaped disaster in the St James’s Day Battle (August 1666) which brought him into conflict with Cornelis Tromp, eventually leading to Tromp’s dismissal. He then became seriously ill, recovering just in time to take nominal command of the fleet executing the Raid on the Medway in 1667. The Medway raid was a costly and embarrassing defeat for the English, resulting in the loss of the English flagship HMS Royal Charles and bringing the Dutch close to London and the war to its end. Between 1667 and 1671 he was forbidden by De Witt to sail, in order not to endanger his life.[9] In 1669 a failed attempt on his life was made by a Tromp supporter, trying to stab him with a bread knife in the entrance-hall of his house.[10]

Third Anglo-Dutch War and death

De Ruyter saved the situation for the Netherlands in the Third Anglo-Dutch War. His strategic victories over larger Anglo-French fleets at the Battles of Solebay (1672), the double Schooneveld (1673) and Texel (1673) warded off invasion. The new rank of Lieutenant-Admiral-General was created especially for him in February 1673, when the new stadtholder William III of Orange became Admiral-General.

Again taking the battle to the Caribbean, this time against the French, De Ruyter arrived off Martinique aboard his flagship De Zeven Provinciën on 19 July 1674. He led a substantial force of eighteen warships, nine storeships, and fifteen troop transports bearing 3,400 soldiers. Attempting to assault Fort Royal, his fleet was becalmed, allowing the greatly outnumbered French defenders time to solidify their defenses. The next day, newly-placed booms prevented de Ruyter from entering the harbor. Nonetheless, the Dutch soldiers went ashore without the support of the fleet’s guns, and were badly mauled in their attempt to reach the French fortifications atop the steep cliffs. Within two hours, the soldiers were returning to the fleet, with 143 killed and 318 wounded, as compared to only fifteen French defenders lost. His ambitions thwarted and with the element of surprise lost, De Ruyter sailed north to Dominica and Nevis, then returned to Europe while disease spread aboard his ships.

In 1676 he took command of a combined Dutch-Spanish fleet to help the Spanish suppress the Messina Revolt and fought a French fleet under Duquesne twice at the Battle of Stromboli and the Battle of Agosta, where he was fatally wounded when a cannonball hit him in the left leg. On 18 March 1677 De Ruyter was given an elaborate state funeral when his body was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk (New Church) in Amsterdam. He was succeeded as supreme commander by Cornelis Tromp in 1679.

Legacy

De Ruyter was highly respected by his sailors and soldiers, who used the term of endearment Bestevaêr (“Granddad”) for him, both because of his disregard for hierarchy (he was himself of humble origin) and his refusal to back away from risky and bold undertakings despite his usually cautious nature.

He is honoured by a statue in his birthplace Vlissingen, where he stands looking over the sea. Almost every town in the Netherlands has a street named after him.

Respect also extended far beyond the borders of the Republic. On his last journey home, the late Lieutenant-Admiral-General was saluted by cannon shots fired on the coasts of France by the direct orders of the French king Louis XIV. The town of Debrecen erected a statue of him for his role in freeing 26 Protestant Hungarian ministers from slavery.

Six ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy have been named HNLMS De Ruyter and seven are named after his flagship HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën

De Ruyter has descendants still living in the United States, Britain, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Canada.

Modern reference

Statue of de Ruyter in Vlissingen, Netherlands

  • In the 2004 election of De Grootste Nederlander (The Greatest Dutchman) Michiel de Ruyter was the seventh-most voted.
  • ‘Michiel de Ruyter’ is the default name for the Dutch in Sid Meier’s 1994 game, Colonization. He is also a great general in the Rise of Mankind mod to Civilization IV.
  • He was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk (New Church) in Amsterdam. De Ruyter’s burial site has now turned into a tourist attraction. De Ruyter’s mausoleum is visible, protected by a glass pane. However, descendants of the De Ruyter family are granted unrestricted access to his grave, and De Ruyter’s descendant stated in a 2007 issue of Dutch newspaper Het Parool that he visited the coffin privately in 1948 with his own grandfather, and they decided to lift the coffin’s lid. The grand-grand son was shocked with the sight and said: “it wasn’t a pleasant sight. He (De Ruyter) was embalmed with great haste, and they didn’t bother with his shot-off leg, they just dropped it in. It was just lying there. No, it wasn’t pleasant, it was a shock actually .”
  • The small town and village of DeRuyter, New York, southeast of Syracuse, are named after the admiral.
  • In the book “Captain Blood: his Odyssey” (Raphael Sabatini), the title character served in the Dutch Navy under de Ruyter.

Notes

  1. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 19
  2. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 23
  3. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 59
  4. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 85
  5. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 86
  6. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 114
  7. ^ “History: History and Development > SETTLEMENT OF BRIDGETOWN” Barbados’ UNESCO World Heritage application The Ministry of Community Development & Culture, Barbados Unk. http://www.bajanworldheritage.com/history. Retrieved 17 March 2011 “In 1665, the Charles Fort played a major role in successfully defending Barbados from attack by the Dutch (commanded by Admiral Michel De Ruyter) who had attempted a surprise assault from the east.” 
  8. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 152
  9. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 228
  10. ^ Prud’homme , 1996, p. 253

Literature

  • Bruijn, J.R., Prud’homme van Reine, R., and Van Hövell tot Westerflier, R., De Ruyter, Dutch Admiral, Karwansaray Publishers, Rotterdam, 2011
  • Hainsworth, R., and Churches, Chr., The Anglo Dutch Naval Wars 1652–1674, Sutton Pub Ltd, 1998
  • Warner, Oliver, Great Sea Battles, Spring Books London, 1973
  • Warnsinck, JCM, Twaalf doorluchtige zeehelden. PN van Kampen & Zoon NV, 1941
  • Warnsinck, JCM, Van Vlootvoogden en Zeeslagen, PN van Kampen & Zoon, 1940

Fiction

  • Moldova György, Negyven prédikátor (1973) (novel)

See also

External links

Comic Book nr. 4 : About…Henry Hudson

 
 

This speculative portrait from Cyclopedia of Universal History is one of several used to represent Henry Hudson.[1]
Born c. 1560/70s
England
Died 1611, most likely[2]
Hudson Bay
Occupation Dutch Sea Commander, former English Sea Commander, Author

Henry Hudson (c. 1560/70s[3] – 1611?) was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. [4]

Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northeast Passage to Cathay (today’s China) via a route above the Arctic Circle. Hudson explored the region around modern New York metropolitan area while looking for a western route to Asia under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company.[5] He explored the river which eventually was named for him, and laid thereby the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.

Hudson discovered a strait and immense bay on his final expedition while searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son and others adrift;[2] the Hudsons, and those cast off at their side, were never seen again.

Contents

 1 Life and career

Life and career

Details of Hudson’s birth and early life are mostly unknown.[6] Some sources have identified Hudson as having been born in about 1565,[3] but others date his birth to around 1570.[7][8] Other historians assert even less certainty; Mancall, for instance, states that ‘[Hudson] was probably born in the 1560s,”[9] while Pennington gives no date at all.[6] Hudson is thought[by whom?] to have spent many years at sea, beginning as a cabin boy and gradually working his way up to ship’s captain.

1607 and 1608 voyages

In 1607, the Muscovy Company of the Kingdom of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia. The English were battling the Dutch for northwest routes. It was thought at the time that, because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the top of the world.

Hudson sailed on the 1st of May with a crew of ten men and a boy on the 80-ton Hopewell.[10] They reached the east coast of Greenland on June 14, coasting it northward until the 22nd. Here they named a headland “Young’s Cape”, a “very high mount, like a round castle” near it “Mount of God’s Mercy” and land at 73° N “Hold-with-Hope”. After turning east, they sighted “Newland” (i.e Spitsbergen) on the 27th, near the mouth of the great bay Hudson later simply named the “Great Indraught” (Isfjorden). On July 13 Hudson and his crew thought they had sailed as far north as 80° 23′ N,[11] but more likely only reached 79° 23′ N. The following day they entered what Hudson later in the voyage named “Whales Bay” (Krossfjorden and Kongsfjorden), naming its northwestern point “Collins Cape” (Kapp Mitra) after his boatswain, William Collins. They sailed north the following two days. On the 16th they reached as far north as Hakluyt’s Headland (which Thomas Edge claims Hudson named on this voyage) at 79° 49′ N, thinking they saw the land continue to 82° N (Svalbard‘s northernmost point is 80° 49’ N) when really it trended to the east. Encountering ice packed along the north coast, they were forced to turn back south. Hudson wanted to make his return “by the north of Greenland to Davis his Streights (Davis Strait), and so for Kingdom of England,” but ice conditions would have made this impossible. The expedition returned to Tilbury Hope on the Thames on September 15.

Many authors[12] have wrongly stated that it was the discovery of large numbers of whales in Spitsbergen waters by Hudson during this voyage that led to several nations sending whaling expeditions to the islands. While he did indeed report seeing many whales, it was not his reports that led to the trade, but that by Jonas Poole in 1610 which led to the establishment of English whaling and the voyages of Nicholas Woodcock and Willem Cornelisz. van Muyden in 1612 that led to the establishment of Dutch, French and Spanish whaling.[13]

In 1608, merchants of the Muscovy Company again sent Hudson in the Hopewell on another attempt at a passage to the Indies, this time to the east around northern Russia. Leaving London in April, the ship traveled almost 2,500 miles, making it to Novaya Zemlya well above the Arctic Circle in July, but even in the summer the ice was impenetrable and they turned back, returning to England in late August.[14]

Hudson’s alleged discovery of Jan Mayen

According to Thomas Edge, “William [sic] Hudson” in 1608 discovered an island he named “Hudson’s Tutches” (Touches) at 71°,[15] the latitude of Jan Mayen. However, he only could have come across Jan Mayen in 1607 (if he had made an illogical detour) and made no mention of it in his journal.[16] There is also no cartographical proof of this supposed discovery.[17] Jonas Poole in 1611 and Robert Fotherby in 1615 both had possession of Hudson’s journal while searching for his elusive Hold-with-Hope (on the east coast of Greenland), but neither had any knowledge of his (later) alleged discovery of Jan Mayen. The latter actually found Jan Mayen, thinking it a new discovery and naming it “Sir Thomas Smith’s Island”.[18][19]

1609 voyage

Map of Hudson’s voyages to North America.

Replica of Henry Hudson’s ship Halve Maen, donated in 1909 by the Dutch to the United States on the occasion of the 300 year anniversary of the discovery of what is now New York.

In 1609, Hudson was chosen by the Dutch East India Company to find an easterly passage to Asia.[20] He was told to sail through the Arctic Ocean north of Russia, into the Pacific and so to the Far East. Hudson departed Amsterdam on April 4 in command of the Dutch ship Halve Maen.[21] He could not complete the specified route because ice blocked the passage, as with all previous such voyages, and he turned the ship around in mid-May while somewhere east of Norway’s North Cape. At that point, acting entirely outside his instructions, Hudson pointed the ship west to try to find a passage in that direction.[22]

Having heard rumors of a passage to the Pacific, by way of John Smith of Jamestown and Samuel de Champlain, Hudson and his crew decided to try to seek a westerly passage through North America. The Native Americans who gave the information to Smith and Champlain were likely referring to what are known today as the Great Lakes (and which could not be reached via any navigable waterways).

They reached the Grand Banks, south of Newfoundland, on July 2, and in mid-July made landfall near what is now LaHave, Nova Scotia.[23] Here they encountered Native Americans who were accustomed to trading with the French; they were willing to trade beaver pelts, but apparently no trades occurred.[24] The ship stayed in the area about ten days, the crew replacing a broken mast and fishing for food. On the 25th a dozen men from the Halve Maen, using muskets and small cannon, went ashore and assaulted the village near their anchorage. They drove the people from the settlement and took their boat and other property (probably pelts and trade goods).[25]

On August 4 the ship was at Cape Cod, from which Hudson sailed south to the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay. Rather than entering the Chesapeake he explored the coast to the north, finding Delaware Bay but continuing on north. On September 3 he reached the estuary of the river that initially was called the “North River” or “Mauritius” and now carries his name. He was not the first to discover the estuary, though, as it had been known since the voyage of Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. On September 6, 1609 John Colman of his crew was killed by Indians with an arrow to his neck.[26] Hudson sailed into the upper bay on September 11,[27] and the following day began a journey up what is now known as the Hudson River[28] Over the next ten days his ship ascended the river, reaching a point about where the present-day capital of Albany is located.[29]

On September 23, Hudson decided to return to Europe. He put in at Dartmouth on November 7, and was detained by authorities who wanted access to his log. He managed to pass the log to the Dutch ambassador to England, who sent it, along with his report, to Amsterdam.[30]

While exploring the river, Hudson had traded with several native groups, mainly obtaining furs. His voyage was used to establish Dutch claims to the region and to the fur trade that prospered there when a trading post was established at Albany in 1614. New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island became the capital of New Netherland in 1625.

1610–1611 voyage

In 1610, Hudson managed to get backing for another voyage, this time under the English flag. The funding came from the Virginia Company and the British East India Company. At the helm of his new ship, the Discovery, he stayed to the north (some claim he deliberately stayed too far south on his Dutch-funded voyage), reaching Iceland on May 11, the south of Greenland on June 4, and then rounding the southern tip of Greenland.

A map of Hudson’s fourth voyage

Excitement was very high due to the expectation that the ship had finally found the Northwest Passage through the continent. On June 25, the explorers reached what is now the Hudson Strait at the northern tip of Labrador. Following the southern coast of the strait on August 2, the ship entered Hudson Bay. Hudson spent the following months mapping and exploring its eastern shores, but he and his crew did not find a passage to Asia. In November, however, the ship became trapped in the ice in the James Bay, and the crew moved ashore for the winter.

John Collier‘s painting of Henry Hudson with his son and some crew members after a mutiny on his icebound ship. The boat was set adrift and never heard from again.

Mutiny

When the ice cleared in the spring of 1611, Hudson planned to use his Discovery to further explore Hudson Bay with the continuing goal of discovering the Passage; however, most of the members of his crew ardently desired to return home. Matters came to a head and much of the crew mutinied in June.

Descriptions of the successful mutiny are one-sided, because the only survivors who could tell their story were the mutineers and those who went along with the mutiny. Allegedly in the latter class was ship’s navigator Abacuk Pricket, a survivor who kept a journal that was to become a key source for the narrative of the mutiny. According to Pricket, the leaders of the mutiny were Henry Greene and Robert Juet. Pricket’s narrative tells how the mutineers set Hudson, his teenage son John, and six crewmen—men who were either sick and infirm or loyal to Hudson—adrift from the Discovery in a small shallop, an open boat, effectively marooning them in Hudson Bay. The Pricket journal reports that the mutineers provided the castaways with clothing, powder and shot, some pikes, an iron pot, some meal, and other miscellaneous items.

After the mutiny, Captain Hudson’s shallop broke out oars and tried to keep pace with the Discovery for some time. Pricket recalled that the mutineers finally tired of the David-Goliath pursuit and unfurled additional sails aboard the Discovery, enabling the larger vessel to leave the tiny open boat behind. Hudson and the other seven aboard the shallop were never seen again, and their fate is unknown.[2]

Pricket’s journal and testimony have been severely criticized for bias, on two grounds. Firstly, prior to the mutiny the alleged leaders of the uprising, Greene and Juet, had been friends and loyal seamen of Captain Hudson. Secondly, Greene and Juet did not survive the return voyage to England. Pricket knew he and the other survivors of the mutiny would be tried in England for piracy, and it would have been in his interest, and the interest of the other survivors, to put together a narrative that would place the blame for the mutiny upon men who were no longer alive to defend themselves.

In any case, the Pricket narrative became the controlling story of the expedition’s disastrous end. Only 8 of the 13 mutinous crewmen survived to return to Europe. They were arrested in England, and some were indeed put on trial, but no punishment was ever imposed for the mutiny. One theory holds that the survivors were considered too valuable as sources of information for it to be wise to execute them, as they had traveled to the New World and could describe sailing routes and conditions.[31] Perhaps for this reason, they were charged with murder—of which they were acquitted—rather than mutiny, of which they most certainly would have been convicted and executed.

Legacy

The gulf or bay discovered by Hudson is twice the size of the Baltic Sea, and its many large estuaries afford access to otherwise landlocked parts of Western Canada and the Arctic. This allowed the Hudson’s Bay Company to exploit a lucrative fur trade along its shores for more than two centuries, growing powerful enough to influence the history and present international boundaries of Western North America. Hudson Strait became the entrance to the Arctic for all ships engaged in the search for the Northwest Passage from the Atlantic side.

The Hudson River in New York and New Jersey, explored earlier by Hudson, is named after him, as are Hudson County, New Jersey, the Henry Hudson Bridge, and the town of Hudson, New York. He, along with his marooned crewmates, also appear as mythic characters in the famous story of Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ All the portraits used to represent Henry Hudson were drawn after his death. See Butts, Edward (2009). Henry Hudson:New World Voyager. Toronto:Dundurn Press. p. 17. See also Hunter, Douglas (2007). God’s Mercies:Rivalry, Betrayal and the Dream of Discovery. Doubleday Canada. p. 12.
  2. ^ a b c Did Henry Hudson’s crew murder him? Yahoo news[dead link] Possible alternative link:Did Henry Hudson’s crew murder him in the Arctic?, which draws on Mancall, Peter C. (2009), Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of Henry Hudson, Basic Books
  3. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/274681/Henry-Hudson Henry Hudson’s entry from china Britannica
  4. ^ Sandler, Corey (2007). Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession. Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0=8065-2739-0 
  5. ^ Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, uit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1625) p.83: “/in den jare 1609 sonden de bewindt-hebbers van de gheoctroyeerde Oost-Indischische compagnie het jacht de halve mane/ daer voor schipper ende koopman op roer Hendrick Hudson, om in ‘t noordt-oosten een door-gaat naer China te soecken[…]”(“in the year 1609 the administrators of the East Indies Compagny sent the half moon under Hudson to seek a northeast passage to China[…]”)
  6. ^ a b Pennington, Piers (1979). The Great Explorers. New York: Facts on File. p. 90. 
  7. ^ Butts, Edward (2009). Henry Hudson:New World Voyager. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 15. 
  8. ^ Sandler, Corey (2007). Henry Hudson: Dreams and Obsession. New York: Kensington Publishing Corp.. pp. 26. 
  9. ^ Mancall, Peter (2009). The Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of Henry Hudson. Basic Books. pp. 43. 
  10. ^ The following paragraph relies on Asher (1860), pp. 1–22; and Conway (1906), pp. 23–30.
  11. ^ Observations made during this voyage were often wrong, sometimes greatly so. See Conway (1906).
  12. ^ Among them are Sandler (2008), p. 407; Umbreit (2005), p. 1; Shorto (2004), p. 21; Mulvaney (2001), p. 38; Davis et al. (1997), p. 31; Francis (1990), p. 30; Rudmose-Brown (1920), p. 312; Chisholm (Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911), p. 942; among many others.
  13. ^ See Poole’s commission from the Muscovy Company in Purchas (1625), p. 24. For Woodcock see Conway (1906), p. 53, among others.
  14. ^ Hunter (2009), pp. 19–20.
  15. ^ Purchas (1625), p. 11.
  16. ^ “The above relation by Thomas Edge is obviously incorrect. Hudson’s Christian name is wrongly given, and the year in which he visited the north coast of Spitsbergen was 1607, not 1608. Moreover, Hudson himself has given an account of the voyage and makes absolutely no mention of Hudson’s Tutches. It would have been hardly possible indeed for him to visit Jan Mayen on his way home from Bear Island to the Thames.” Wordie (1922), p. 182.
  17. ^ Hacquebord (2004), p. 229.
  18. ^ “Having perused Hudsons Jounrall written by his owne hand… “, p. 88. For Fotherby’s 1615 voyage see Purchas (1625), pp. 82–89.
  19. ^ Louwrens Hacquebord, “The Jan Mayen Whaling Industry” in Jan Mayen Island in Scientific Focus, pp. 230–31, Stig Skreslet, editor, Springer Verlag 2004
  20. ^ Willard Sterne Randall “First Encounters,” American Heritage, Spring 2009.
  21. ^ Hunter (2009), p. 11.
  22. ^ Hunter (2009), pp. 56–7.
  23. ^ Hunter (2009), pp. 92–4.
  24. ^ Hunter (2009), p. 98, and Juet (1609), July 19th entry.
  25. ^ Hunter (2009), pp. 102–105, and Juet (1609), July 25th entry.
  26. ^ Roberts, Sam (September 4, 2009). “New York’s Coldest Case: A Murder 400 Years Old”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/05/nyregion/05murder.html?_r=1&hp=&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1252080165-+D9yYyiF6xMjibXoyas7fA. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  27. ^ Nevius, Michelle and James, “New York’s many 9/11 anniversaries: the Staten Island Peace Conference”, Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City, 2008-09-08. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  28. ^ Juet (1609).
  29. ^ Hunter (2009), pp. 230–5.
  30. ^ Shorto 2004, p. 31
  31. ^ “Dictionary of Canadian Biography”. Biographi.ca. 2007-10-18. http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=34410. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 

References

  • Asher, Georg Michael (1860). Henry Hudson the Navigator. Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, 27. ISBN 1402195583
  • Conway, William Martin (1906). No Man’s Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country. Cambridge, At the University Press. 
  • Hacquebord, Lawrens. (2004). The Jan Mayen Whaling Industry. Its Exploitation of the Greenland Right Whale and its Impact on the Marine Ecosystem. In: S. Skreslet (ed.), Jan Mayen in Scientific Focus. Amsterdam, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 229-238.
  • Juet, Robert (1609), Juet’s Journal of Hudson’s 1609 Voyage from the 1625 edition of Purchas His Pilgrimes and transcribed 2006 by Brea Barthel, “Juet’s Journal of Hudson’s 1609 Voyage” (PDF). http://www.halfmoon.mus.ny.us/Juets-modified.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-22. [dead link].
  • Purchas, S. 1625. Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes: Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and others. Volumes XIII and XIV (Reprint 1906 J. Maclehose and sons).
  • Hunter, Douglas (2009). Half Moon: Henry Hudson and the voyage that redrew the map of the New World. Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 1-59691-680-X 
  • Shorto, Russell (2004). The Island at the Center of the World. Vintage Books. ISBN 1-4000-7867-9 
  • Wordie, J.M. (1922) “Jan Mayen Island”, The Geographical Journal Vol 59 (3).
  • Mancall, Peter C. (2009), Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of Henry Hudson, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-00511-X & ISBN 978-0-465-00511-6

External links

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