By Charlier and Giraud / and Wilson // By Corteggiani and Wilson // By Corteggiani and Blanc-Dumont

Please click on the album picture to view my personal library collection on : Blueberry


Blueberry Giraud.png
Blueberry as drawn by Jean Giraud
Publication information
Publisher Dargaud, Le Lombard, Fleurus, Hachette, Novedi, Alpen Publishers
Format Graphic novel
Publication date 1963–present
Main character(s) Mike S. Blueberry (born as Michael Steven Donovan)
Creative team
Writer(s) Jean-Michel Charlier (until 1990), Jean Giraud (from 1995)
Artist(s) Jean “Mœbius” Giraud
Creator(s) Jean-Michel Charlier
Jean Giraud

Blueberry is a Franco-Belgian comics western series created by the Belgian scriptwriter Jean-Michel Charlier and French comics artist Jean “Mœbius” Giraud. It chronicles the adventures of Mike Blueberry on his travels through the American Old West. Blueberry is an atypical western hero; he is not a wandering lawman who brings evil-doers to justice, nor a handsome cowboy who “rides into town, saves the ranch, becomes the new sheriff and marries the schoolmarm.”[1]


The story follows Michael Steven Donovan, nicknamed “Blueberry”, a name he chose when fleeing from his Southern enemies (which was inspired when he looked at a blueberry bush), starting with his adventures as a lieutenant in the United States Cavalry shortly after the American Civil War. He is accompanied in many tales by his hard-drinking deputy, Jimmy McClure, and later also by Red Woolley, a rugged pioneer.

Donovan is the son of a rich Southern farmer and started as a dedicated racist. He was framed for a murder he did not commit, had to flee and was saved by an African-American. He became an enemy of discrimination of all kinds, fought against the Confederates (although he was a Southerner himself), and tried to protect the rights of Native AmericansPublication history

Publication History

Original publications in French

Blueberry has its roots in Giraud’s earlier Western-themed works such as Frank et Jeremie, which was drawn for Far West magazine when he was only 18, and his collaboration on Jijé‘s Jerry Spring in 1961, which appeared in the Belgian comics magazine Spirou. Around 1961-1962 Jean Giraud asked Jean-Michel Charlier, whether he wanted to write scripts for a new western series for Pilote. Charlier refused at first, since he never felt much empathy for the genre. In 1963 the magazine sent Charlier on a reporting assignment to Edwards Airforce Base in the Mojave Desert, California. He took the opportunity to discover the American West, returning to France with a strong urge to write a western. First he asked Jijé to draw the series, but Jijé thought there would be a conflict of interest, since he was a regular artist at Spirou, a competing comic magazine.[2] Therefore Jijé proposed his protégé Giraud as the artist.[3] Charlier and Giraud have also collaborated on another Western strip, Jim Cutlass.

Blueberry was first published in the October 31, 1963 issue of the comics magazine Pilote.[4] Initially titled “Fort Navajo”, the story grew into 46 pages over the following issues. In this series Blueberry – whose physical appearance was inspired by French actor Jean-Paul Belmondo[5][6] – was only one of many protagonists. Charlier came up with the name during his American trip: “When I was traveling throughout the West, I was accompanied by a fellow journalist who was just in love with blueberry jam, so much in love, in fact, that I had nicknamed him “Blueberry”. When I began to create the new series, and everything started to fall into place, I decided to reuse my friend’s nickname, because I liked it and thought it was funny. […] I had no idea that he would prove so popular that he would eventually take over the entire series, and later we would be stuck with that silly name![2]

Charlier and Giraud continued to add to the legend of Mike Blueberry in Pilote and other titles even into the 1990s. During that time the artistic style has varied greatly, much as with Giraud’s other works. In the same volume, sweeping landscapes will contrast sharply with hard-edged action scenes and the art matches the changing mood of the story quite well. Like much of the Western genre, Blueberry touches on the constant conflict between violence and tranquility, nature and civilization, and the obligation of the strong to protect the weak.

Between 1963 and 1973 Blueberry stories were first published in Pilote or Super Pocket Pilote prior to issuing them in album format.[7]

Since Charlier’s death, Giraud writes and draws each album (from Mister Blueberry to Dust—five albums until today).

English translations

The first English translations of Blueberry comics were published in Europe during the late seventies by Egmont/Methuen. Since then English translations were published by many other companies (Epic Comics, Comcat, Mojo Press, Dark Horse Comics) resulting into all kinds of formats and quality—from b/w, American comic book sized budget collections to full color European style albums with many extras. Since 1993 no Blueberry comics have been published in English. Moebius painted new covers for the Epic line of Blueberry. Actually this was the first time Blueberry was published under Giraud’s pseudonym, Moebius. As R.J.M. Lofficier, the translator of the books wrote: “This is quite ironic because Giraud first coined the ‘Moebius’ pseudonym precisely because he wanted to keep his two bodies of work separate. Yet, the artist recognizes the fact that he has now become better known in this country under his ‘nom-de-plume,’ and this is his way of making it official!”[1]

Table of English translations in the order of original French titles
French title French release (yyyy/mm)[8] English saga title English title and data Note
Fort Navajo 1965/09 Lieutenant Blueberry: Fort Navajo Series Fort Navajo (Egmont/Methuen, 1977) Published in Belgium
Tonnerre à l’ouest 1966/01 Thunder in the West (Egmont/Methuen, 1977)
L’aigle solitaire 1967/01 Lone Eagle (Egmont/Methuen, 1978)
Le cavalier perdu 1968/01 Mission to Mexico (Egmont/Methuen, 1978), The Lost Rider (Dargaud)
La piste des Navajos 1969/01   The Trail of the Navajos (Dargaud)  
L’homme à l’étoile d’argent 1969/10   The Man with the Silver Star (Dargaud, 1983)  
Le cheval de fer 1970/01 Lieutenant Blueberry The Iron Horse (Epic, 1991)  
L’homme au poing d’acier 1970/03 Steel Fingers (Epic, 1991)  
La piste des Sioux 1971/01 General Golden Mane (Epic, 1991) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: The Trail of the Sioux
Général tête jaune 1971/10 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book title.
La mine de l’allemand perdu 1972/01 Marshall Blueberry The Lost Dutchman’s Mine (Epic, 1991) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book.
Le spectre aux balles d’or 1972/07 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: The Ghost with the Golden Bullets
Chihuahua Pearl 1973/01 Blueberry Chihuahua Pearl (Epic, 1989) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book.
L’homme qui valait 500 000 $ 1973/07 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: “The Half-a-Million Dollar Man”
Ballade pour un cercueil 1974/01 Ballad for a Coffin (Epic, 1989) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book.
Le hors-la-loi 1974/10 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: The Outlaw
Angel Face 1975/07 Angel Face (Epic, 1989) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book.
Nez Cassé 1980/01 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: Broken Nose
La longue marche 1980/10 The Ghost Tribe (Epic, 1990) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: The Long March
La tribu fantôme 1982/03 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book.
La dernière carte 1983/11 The End of the Trail (Epic, 1990) Two chapters in one book. Chapter title: The Last Card
Le bout de la piste 1986/09 Two chapters in one book. Chapter title same as book.
Arizona Love 1990/10   Arizona Love (Dark Horse Comics, 1993) Divided into sequels: Cheval Noir #46-50. Black and white, American current size comic book format.
Mister Blueberry 1995/11 not translated
Ombres sur Tombstone 1997/11 not translated
Geronimo l’Apache 1999/10 not translated
OK Corral 2003/09 not translated
Dust 2005/03 not translated
  • In the case of some Epic versions (Chihuahua Pearl, Ballad for a Coffin, Angel Face, The Ghost Tribe, and The End of the Trail), Titan Books has issued the identically same albums for the UK market, with a few months delay.
  • Mojo Press published a black and white, American comic book sized budget collection: The Blueberry Saga #1: The Confederate Gold in 1996. It contains the following stories: Chihuahua Pearl, “The Half-A-Million Dollar Man”, Ballad for a Coffin, The Outlaw, Angel Face. It also contains a 14 page non Blueberry comic.
  • Some issues of Graphitti Design’s series presenting Moebius dealt with Blueberry. Moebius #9 contains the The Lost Dutchman’s Mine and The Ghost with the Golden Bullets, along with non-Blueberry westerns (King of the Buffalo, Jim Cutlass: Mississippi River).

Non-English translations

Since its inception, the series has slowly gained a large following in Europe, and has been extensively translated into several languages including Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Polish, Finnish, Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian and Turkish. Apart from Europe, in India it has been translated in Tamil by Prakash Publishers in their “Muthu” comics, and also in Indonesian.

Prequels and sequels

A “prequel” series, La Jeunesse de Blueberry (Young Blueberry), as well as the sequels Marshal Blueberry and Mister Blueberry have been published as well, with other artists and writers, most famously William Vance.

The Young Blueberry (La Jeunesse de Blueberry)

A prequel dealing with Blueberry’s early years, during the American Civil War—how the racist son of a wealthy plantation owner turned into a Yankee bugler and all the adventures after that. The material for the first few albums were first seen in digest size Super Pocket Pilote during the late sixties. Later these were blown up, rearranged, colored, to fit the album format. Some panels were omitted in the process. The 1990 English language edition of these stories, by Catalan Communications under their “Comcat” line, give track of the changes and present the left out panels. Only the first three stories were published in English, although the company planned to publish The Missouri Demons and Terror over Kansas, as can be seen on the back covers of the ones published. The three albums were also published in a single hardcover version.

Jean-Michel Charlier and Jean Giraud

  • 1: La jeunesse de Blueberry (1975)—Blueberry’s Secret (ComCat comics, September 1989)
  • 2: Un Yankee nommé Blueberry (1978)—A Yankee Named Blueberry (ComCat comics, march 1990)
  • 3: Cavalier bleu (1979)—The Blue Coats (ComCat comics, July 1990)

Jean-Michel Charlier and Colin Wilson

  • 4: Les démons du Missouri (1985)—The Missouri Demons
  • 5: Terreur sur le Kansas (1987)—Terror Over Kansas
  • 6: Le raid infernal (1987)—The Train from Hell

François Corteggiani and Colin Wilson

  • 7: La pousuite impitoyable (1992)—The Merciless Pursuit
  • 8: Trois hommes pour Atlanta (1993)—The Three Men from Atlanta
  • 9: Le prix du sang (1994)—The Price of Blood

François Corteggiani and Michel Blanc-Dumont

  • 10: La solution Pinkerton (1998)
  • 11: La piste des maudits (2000)
  • 12: Dernier train pour Washington (2001)
  • 13: Il faut tuer Lincoln (2003)
  • 14: Le boucher de Cincinnati (2005)
  • 15: La sirene de Vera-Cruz (2006)
  • 16: 100 dollars pour mourir (2007)
  • 17: Le Sentier des larmes (2008)
  • 18: 1276 âmes (2009)
  • 19: Redemption (2010)

Marshal Blueberry

Jean Giraud and William Vance, page layout by René Follet

  • 1: Sur ordre de Washington (1991)
  • 2: Mission Shermann (1993)

Jean Giraud and Michel Rouge

  • 3: Frontière sanglante (2000)

Legacy and Awards

The series has received wide recognition in the comics community, and the chief factor when Giraud received the Swedish Adamson Award for Best International Comic Series in 1979.[9]
The Blueberry saga published by Epic was nominated for Best American Edition of Foreign Material for the 1992 Harvey Awards.[10]
The Blueberry Saga #1: The Confederate Gold published by Mojo Press was nominated for Best Archival Collection for the 1997 Eisner Awards.[11]

Adaptations and merchandise

A 2004 film adaptation, Blueberry[12](U.S. release title is Renegade), was directed by Jan Kounen and starred Vincent Cassel in the lead role. However, many purists were appalled by this film.[13] It arguably did not stay true to the action-based, gritty comic, but rather featured an esoteric, trippy presentation of shamanism (if anything, more resembling the Mœbius style).

In addition to the comic strips, Blueberry and his fellow characters can be found on posters, clothing, and other items.


  1. ^ a b R.J.M. Lofficier: Before Nick Fury, There was… Lieutenant Blueberry in Marvel Age #79 October, 1989.
  2. ^ a b Afterword by Jean-Michel Charlier in Blueberry 2: Ballad for a Coffin. Epic Comics. 1989 ISBN #0-87135-570-1
  3. ^ Lambiek Comiclopedia. “Jean Giraud”. 
  4. ^ BDoubliées. “Pilote année 1963” (in French). 
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ According to
  9. ^ Comic Book Awards Almanac. “Adamson Awards”. 
  10. ^ 1992 Harvey Award Nominees and Winners
  11. ^ 1997 Will Eisner Comic Industry Award Nominees and Winners
  12. ^ Movie (Renegade)
  13. ^ Blueberry – Edition Collector, Fnac


Further reading

External links

Jean Giraud

Blueberry is one of Giraud’s most famous creations.

Cover for Silver Surfer: Parable.

Collected editions

Various comics have been collected into trade paperbacks:

  • The Collected Fantasies of Jean Giraud (1987–1994):
  • Moebius 0 – The Horny Goof & Other Underground Stories (72 pages, Dark Horse, 1990, ISBN 1878574167)
  • Moebius ½ – The Early Moebius & Other Humorous Stories (Graphitti Designs, 1992, ISBN 0936211288)
  • Moebius 1 – Upon A Star (72 pages, Marvel/Epic, 1987, ISBN 0871352788)
  • Moebius 2 – Arzach & Other Fantasy Stories (72 pages, Titan, ISBN 1852860456, Marvel/Epic, 1987)
  • Moebius 3 – The Airtight Garage (120 pages, Titan, ISBN 1852860464, Marvel/Epic, 1987)
  • Moebius 4 – The Long Tomorrow & Other Science Fiction Stories (70 pages, Marvel/Epic, 1987, ISBN 0871352818)
  • Moebius 5 – The Gardens of Aedena (72 pages, Titan, ISBN 1852860472, Marvel/Epic, 1988, ISBN 0871352826)
  • Moebius 6 – Pharagonesia & Other Strange Stories (72 pages, Titan, ISBN 1852860480, Marvel/Epic, 1988)
  • Moebius 7 – The Goddess (88 pages, Marvel/Epic, 1990, ISBN 0871357143)
  • Moebius 8 – Mississippi River (64 pages, Marvel/Epic, 1991, ISBN 0871357151)
  • Moebius 9 – Stel (Marvel/Epic, 1994)
  • Moebius One – Limited-Signed Edition, Hardcover (266 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1988, ISBN 0936211105)


Video games

  • Fade to Black cover art (1995)
  • Panzer Dragoon (1995)
  • Pilgrim: Faith as a Weapon (1998)
  • An arcade and bar based on Giraud’s work, called The Airtight Garage, was one of the original main attractions at the Metreon in San Francisco when the complex opened in 1999. It included three original games: Quaternia, a first-person shooter networked between terminals and based on the concept of “junctors” from Major Fatal and The Airtight Garage; a virtual reality bumper cars game about mining asteroids; and Hyperbowl, an obstacle course bowling game incorporating very little overtly Moebius imagery. The arcade was closed and reopened as “Portal One”, retaining much of the Moebius-based decor and Hyperbowl but eliminating the other originals in favor of more common arcade games.


Further reading


  1. ^ Comics Buyer’s Guide #1485; May 3, 2002; Page 29
  2. ^ De Weyer, Geert (2008) (in Dutch). 100 stripklassiekers die niet in je boekenkast mogen ontbreken. Amsterdam / Antwerp: Atlas. p. 215. ISBN 9789045009964. 
  3. ^ a b c “Jean Giraud”. Comiclopedia. Lambiek. 
  4. ^ Hachereau, Dominique. “BD – Bande Dessinee et Philatelie” (in French). Retrieved 2009-07-18 
  5. ^ Official website on the Miyazaki-Moebius exhibition at La Monnaie, Paris
  6. ^ Bordenave, Julie. “Miyazaki Moebius : coup d’envoi”. Retrieved 2008-05-18 
  7. ^ Ghibli Museum, ed (in Japanese). Ghibli Museumdiary 2002-08-01. Tokuma Memorial Cultural Foundation for Animation. Retrieved 2008-05-18 
  8. ^ Libiot, Eric (4 January 2007). “Giraud s’aventure dans XIII”. L’Express. (French)
  9. ^ Expo GIR et MOEBIUS, 1997, accessed March 12, 2011.
  10. ^ “Blueberry au bord du Nervous break-down…”, bdparadisio]
  11. ^ “Jean Giraud sur un scénario de Jean-Michel Charlier”, (French)
  12. ^ “Moebius – Jean Giraud – Video del Maestro all’ opera”, YouTube, May 30, 2008
  13. ^ Jean Giraud at the Internet Movie Database
  14. ^ “11° Salone Internationale del Comics, del Film di Animazione e dell’Illustrazione”. (Italian)
  15. ^ “14° Salone Internationale del Comics, del Film di Animazione e dell’Illustrazione”. (Italian)
  16. ^ “Grand Prix de l’Imaginaire”.  (French)


External links


Jean-Michel Charlier


Born 30 October 1924(1924-10-30)
Liège, Belgium
Died 10 July 1989(1989-07-10) (aged 64)
Saint-Cloud, France
Nationality Belgian
Area(s) Writer
Notable works Buck Danny
Awards full list

Jean-Michel Charlier (30 October 1924 – 10 July 1989) was a Belgian script writer best known as a writer of realistic European comics. He was a co-founder of the famed European comics magazine Pilote.



Charlier was born in Liège, Belgium in 1924.[1] In 1945 he got a job as a draughtsman in Brussels with World Press, the syndicate of Georges Troisfontaines, which worked mainly for the comic strip magazine Spirou. The following year he and artist Victor Hubinon created the four-page comic strip L’Agonie du Bismarck. Charlier wrote the script and also drew the ships and airplanes. In 1947 Charlier and Hubinon began the long-running air-adventure comic strip Buck Danny. After a few years, Charlier stopped all work on the drawings and concentrated only on the scenarios, on the advice of Jijé, then the senior artist at Spirou.[1]

Unable to support himself writing comic scripts at a time when Dupuis concentrated almost solely on the magazine and albums were few and far between, Charlier qualified for a pilots license in 1949 and briefly flew for the airline SABENA.

However the following year Charlier returned to comic strips, collaborating with Hubinon once again to create Tiger Joe for La Libre Junior, the weekly comics supplement to the journal La Libre Belgique. Charlier also continued to supply scripts for Spirou magazine, collaborating with Eddy Paape on the strip Valhardi and, in 1955, with future Asterix artist Albert Uderzo on the comic strip Belloy. Together with Hubinon, he also created some biographical comics like Jean Mermoz and Surcouf. Other long running series he started for Spirou in the early 1950s were La Patrouille des Castors for Mitacq, and in 1951 Les Vraies Histoires de l’Oncle Paul (Uncle Paul’s true stories), a weekly comic of four pages telling a true story. The latter series was continued from 1954 on by Octave Joly, and was a place where many young talents published their first comics, including Jean Graton, René Follet and Hermann Huppen.[1]

Charlier, Hubinon, Uderzo, and comic-strip writer René Goscinny founded the comics agency Edifrance and the magazine Pistolin in 1955, and the influential magazine Pilote in 1959.[1] Charlier was editor-in-chief and also wrote two stories for the first issue: Redbeard with Hubinon and Tanguy and Laverdure with Uderzo – these latter two characters would later get their own TV series as well: Les Chevaliers du Ciel, featuring Tanguy and Laverdure, was made by ORTF between 1967 and 1969, an English-dubbed version of the show being released under the title The Aeronauts.[1]

Charlier visited the United States in 1963 and a tour of the American West inspired him to create Fort Navajo, a western series, for Pilote. He chose as artist Jean Giraud (Moebius), then a commercial illustrator who had briefly worked with Jijé on Jerry Spring, a popular European western strip. Fort Navajo, later renamed Blueberry or Lieutenant Blueberry after its main character, became a popular and innovative graphic novel.[2] In 1972 friction among the staff at Pilote caused Charlier to give up his editorial position and he worked in French television until 1976. He then worked as editor-in-chief for two years at Tintin magazine. He continued to write Blueberry and Buck Danny stories.

Jean-Michel Charlier died in Saint-Cloud, France, in 1989. His main series are all continued by other writers, often chosen by Charlier himself.[1]


Series Years Volumes Artist Publisher Remarks
Buck Danny 1948–1988 44 Victor Hubinon (1-40) and Francis Bergèse (41-44) Dupuis, Novedi and Hachette Continued by Bergèse alone
Fanfan et Polo Aviateurs 1951 1 Dino Attanasio La Libre Belgique  
Tarawa, atoll sanglant 1951 1 Victor Hubinon and Albert Weinberg Dupuis  
Surcouf 1951–1953 3 Victor Hubinon Dupuis  
Tiger Joe 1951–1977 3 Hubinon La Libre Belgique and Deligne  
Oncle Paul 1953–1955 12 Various artists, including Eddy Paape and Jean Graton Dupuis Additional stories by Octave Joly
Valhardi 1953–1975 6 Eddy Paape and Jijé Dupuis and Deligne Created by Jean Doisy
Kim Devil 1955–1957 4 Gérald Forton Dupuis  
La Patrouille des Castors 1955–1984 23 Mitacq Dupuis Continued by Mitacq alone
Jean Mermoz 1956 1 Victor Hubinon Dupuis  
Marc Dacier 1960–1982 13 Eddy Paape Dupuis  
Tanguy et Laverdure 1961–1988 25 Albert Uderzo, Jijé, Serres and Coutelis Dargaud, Le Lombard, Fleurus, Novedi and Hachette  
Barbe-Rouge (Redbeard) 1961–1991 26 Victor Hubinon, Jijé, Lorg, Gaty and Patrice Pellerin Dargaud, Fleurus, Novedi and Hachette  
Blueberry 1965–1990 23 Jean Giraud Dargaud, Fleurus, Novedi, Hachette, and Alpen  
La jeunesse de Blueberry 1975–1990 6 Jean Giraud and Colin Wilson Dargaud, Novedi, and Dupuis  
Guy Lebleu 1976 2 Poivet Glénat Originally created in 1961
Belloy 1977 4 Albert Uderzo Deligne Originally created in 1948
André Lefort 1978 1 Eddy Paape Bédéscope Originally created in 1956
Jim Cutlass 1979 1 Jean Giraud Les Humanoïdes Associés  
Les Gringos 1979–1980 2 Victor de la Fuente Fleurus  
Jacques Le Gall 1980–1985 4 Mitacq Dupuis Originally created in 1959
Brice Bolt 1984–1985 2 Puig Dupuis Originally created in 1971
Ron Clarke 1991 1 J. Armand Alpen  
Clairette 1997 1 Albert Uderzo Antarès Originally created in 1957


  • 1973: Best Foreign Comic Series at the Shazam Awards, USA



  1. ^ a b c d e f De Weyer, Geert (2005). “Jean-Michel Charlier”. In België gestript, pp. 177-179. Tielt: Lannoo.
  2. ^ “Los buenos, los feos y los malos” (in Spanish). Malaga Hoy. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 

External links


François Corteggiani


François Corteggiani in February 2010
Born September 21, 1953 (1953-09-21) (age 57)
Nice, France
Nationality French
Area(s) artist, writer

François Corteggiani (born 1953) is a French comics artist and writer.


He was born on 21 September 1953 in France. He got a degree in art before becoming an artist for advertising. He created his first comic in 1974 for S.E.P.P. and Mucheroum for Spirou. He illustrated works for various magazines and then, along with Michel Motti, he drew Pif le chien for Pif gadget.

Taking over more work as scenarist, Corteggiani has written for several series, among others succeeding Jean-Michel Charlier as writer for Young Blueberry.

External links