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Attila 

Attila (pronounced /ˈætɨlə/ or /əˈtɪlə/; 406–453), also known as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea. During his rule, he was one of the most fearsome enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empire. He invaded the Balkans twice and marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orléans before being defeated at the Battle of Châlons. He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome.

Contents

Appearance, character

There is no surviving first-person account of Attila’s appearance. There is, however, a possible second-hand source, provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. It suggests a person of Asian features.[1]

Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin.[2]

Etymology of the name

The origin of Attila’s name is not known with confidence. Pritsak considers it to mean “universal ruler” in a Turkic language related to Danube Bulgarian.[3] Maenchen-Helfen suggests an East Germanic origin and rejects a Turkic etymology: “Attila is formed from Gothic or Gepidic atta, “father,” by means of the diminutive suffix -ila.” He suggests that Pritsak’s etymology is “ingenious but for many reasons unacceptable”. However, he suggests that these names were “not the true names of the Hun princes and lords. What we have are Hunnic names in Germanic dress, modified to fit the Gothic tongue, or popular Gothic etymologies, or both. Mikkola thought Attila might go back to Turkish atlïg, “famous”; [127] Poucha finds in it Tokharian atär, “hero.” [128] The first etymology is too farfetched to be taken seriously, the second is nonsense.”[4]

The name has many variants in modern languages: Atli and Atle in Norse, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (all the three name variants are used in Hungary; Attila is the most popular variant), Etzel in the German Nibelungenlied, or Attila, Atila or Atilla in modern Turkish.

Background

Main article: Huns

The Huns were a group of Eurasian nomads, appearing from beyond the Volga, who migrated into Europe c. 370 and built up an enormous empire there. Their main military techniques were mounted archery and javelin throwing. They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu who had been northern neighbours of China three hundred years before[5] and may be the first expansion of Turkic people across Eurasia.[6][7][8][9][10] The origin and language of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries. According to some theories, their leaders at least may have spoken a Turkic language, perhaps closest to the modern Chuvash language.[11] One scholar suggests a relationship to Yeniseian.[12]

Shared kingship

Hunnic Empire (Orange)

The death of Rugila (also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left the sons of his brother Mundzuk (Hungarian: Bendegúz, Turkish: Boncuk, Azerbaijani: Muncuq), Attila and Bleda (Buda), in control of the united Hun tribes. At the time of two brothers’ accession, the Hun tribes were bargaining with Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II‘s envoys for the return of several renegades (possibly Hunnic nobles who disagreed with the brothers’ assumption of leadership) who had taken refuge within the Eastern Roman Empire.

The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner,[13] negotiated a successful treaty. The Romans agreed to not only return the fugitives, but to also double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca. 115 kg) of gold, to open their markets to Hunnish traders, and to pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the Roman Empire and returned to their home in the Hungarian Great Plain, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city’s first sea wall, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.

The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years while they invaded the Sassanid Empire. When defeated in Armenia by the Sassanids, the Huns abandoned their invasion and turned their attentions back to Europe. In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty. Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to the cities of Illyricum and forts on the river, including (according to Priscus) Viminacium, a city of Moesia. Their advance began at Margus, where they demanded that the Romans turn over a bishop who had retained property that Attila regarded as his. While the Romans discussed turning the Bishop over, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.

While the Huns attacked city-states along the Danube, the Vandals led by Geiseric captured the Western Roman province of Africa and its capital of Carthage. Carthage was the richest province of the Western empire and a main source of food for Rome. The Sassanid Shah Yazdegerd II invaded Armenia in 441. The Romans stripped the Balkan area of forces needed to defeat the Vandals in Africa which left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyricum into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army sacked Margus and Viminacium, and then took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium. During 442 Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large issue of new coins to finance operations against the Huns. Believing he could defeat the Huns, he refused the Hunnish kings’ demands.

Attila responded with a campaign in 443.[14] Striking along the Danube, the Huns, equipped with new military weapons like the battering rams and rolling siege towers, overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš).

Advancing along the Nisava River, the Huns next took Serdica, Philippopolis, and Arcadiopolis. They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople but were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital. They defeated a second army near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli). Theodosius, stripped of his armed forces, admitted defeat, sending the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius to negotiate peace terms. The terms were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 2000 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 700 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi.

Their demands met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. According to Jordanes (following Priscus), following the Huns’ withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died, killed in a hunting accident arranged by his brother, Attila. Attila then took the throne for himself, becoming the sole ruler of the Huns.[15]

Sole ruler

Mór Than‘s painting The Feast of Attila, based on a fragment of Priscus.

In 447 Attila again rode south into the Eastern Roman Empire through Moesia. The Roman army under the Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus met him in the Battle of the Utus and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses. The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae. Constantinople itself was saved by the Isaurian troops of the magister militum per Orientem Zeno and protected by the intervention of the prefect Constantinus, who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old. An account of this invasion survives:

The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it. … And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered. Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers. (Callinicus, in his Life of Saint Hypatius)

In the West

In 450, Attila proclaimed his intent to attack the powerful Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III in order to do so. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its influential general Flavius Aëtius. Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila’s plans.

However, Valentinian’s sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help – and her engagement ring – in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.

The general path of the Hun forces in the invasion of Gaul.

Attila interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger.[16] Attila gathered his vassalsGepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west. In 451, he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong. J.B. Bury believes that Attila’s intent, by the time he marched west, was to extend his kingdom – already the strongest on the continent – across Gaul to the Atlantic Ocean.[17]

On April 7, he captured Metz. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vitae written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongeren with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is to have saved Paris.[18] Lupus, bishop of Troyes, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.[19]

Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. A mission by Avitus, and Attila’s continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orléans ahead of Attila,[20] thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagne). The two armies clashed in the Battle of Châlons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a strategic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy, because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visigothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius’ point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.

Invasion of Italy and death

Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. The city of Venice was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileia to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udine, where the castle can still be found. Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila’s advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Po. By this point disease and starvation may have broken out in Attila’s camp, thus helping to stop his invasion.

Raphael’s The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila depicts Leo, escorted by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, meeting with the Hun king outside Rome.

Emperor Valentinian III sent three envoys, the high civilian officers Gennadius Avienus and Trigetius, as well as the Bishop of Rome Leo I, who met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor.[21] Prosper of Aquitaine gives a short, reliable description of the historic meeting, but gives all the credit of the successful negotiation to Leo. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause.

In reality, Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops were faring little better in 452; Attila’s devastating invasion of the plains of northern Italy this year did not improve the harvest.[22] To advance on Rome would have required supplies which were not available in Italy, and taking the city would not have improved Attila’s supply situation. Therefore, it was more profitable for Attila to conclude peace and retreat back to his homeland.[23] Secondly, an East Roman force had crossed the Danube under the command of another officer also named Aetius—who had participated in the Council of Chalcedon the previous year—and proceeded to defeat the Huns who had been left behind by Attila to safeguard their home territories.[24] Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to retire “from Italy without ever setting foot south of the Po.”[24] As Hydatius writes:[25]

The Huns, who had been plundering Italy and who had also stormed a number of cities, were victims of divine punishment, being visited with heaven-sent disasters: famine and some kind of disaster. In addition, they were slaughtered by auxiliaries sent by the Emperor Marcian and led by Aetius, at the same time, they were crushed in their [home] settlements….Thus crushed, they made peace with the Romans and all retired to their homes.
—Hydatius, Chron Min. ii pp.26ff

After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had stopped. (Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder). However, Attila died in the early months of 453. The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests a Gothic origin)[26] he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor. An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking or a condition called esophageal varices, where dilated veins in the lower part of the esophagus rupture leading to death by hemorrhage.[27]

Another account of his death, first recorded 80 years after the events by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that “Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife.”[28] The Volsunga saga and the Poetic Edda also claim that King Atli (Attila) died at the hands of his wife, Gudrun.[29] Most scholars reject these accounts as no more than hearsay, preferring instead the account given by Attila’s contemporary Priscus. Priscus’ version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. Babcock.[30] Based on detailed philological analysis, Babcock concludes that the account of natural death, given by Priscus, was an ecclesiastical “cover story” and that Emperor Marcian (who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 450 to 457) was the political force behind Attila’s death.

Jordanes says: “The greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men.” His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes: “Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?”

Then they celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting. Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests. His men diverted a section of the river, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret.

His sons Ellac (his appointed successor), Dengizich, and Ernakh fought over the division of his legacy, specifically which vassal kings would belong to which brother. As a consequence they were divided, defeated and scattered the following year in the Battle of Nedao by the Ostrogoths and the Gepids under Ardaric who had been Attila’s most prized chieftain.

Attila’s many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dry up and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila’s descendants. This has not stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the khans of Bulgaria (see Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans). A popular, but ultimately unconfirmed, attempt tries to relate Attila to Charlemagne.

Later folklore and iconography

 

Illustration of the meeting between Attila and Pope Leo from the Chronicon Pictum, ca. 1360

Later writers developed the meeting of Leo I and Attila into a pious “fable which has been represented by the pencil of Raphael and the chisel of Algardi”,[31] reporting that the Pope, aided by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, convinced Attila to turn away from the city.[32] According to a version of this legend related in the Chronicon Pictum, a mediaeval Hungarian chronicle, the Pope promised Attila that if he left Rome in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown (which has been understood as referring to the Holy Crown of Hungary).

Attila in the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)

Some histories and chronicles describe him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas: Atlakviða,[33] Völsungasaga,[34] and Atlamál.[35] The Polish Chronicle represents Attila’s name as Aquila.[citation needed]

In modern Hungary and in Turkey “Attila” and its Turkish variation “Atilla” are commonly used as a male first name. In Hungary, several public places are named after Attila; for instance, in Budapest there are 10 Attila Streets, one of which is an important street behind the Buda Castle. When the Turkish Armed Forces invaded Cyprus in 1974, the operations were named after Attila (Atilla I and Atilla II).[36]

See also

 

Gallery

  • Fine work of art representing Attila.

  • Renaissance statue representing Attila.

  • The Meeting of Leo I and Attila by Alessandro Algardi.

  • Another perspective of the Meeting by Alessandro Algardi.

References

    1. ^ Herwig Wolfram, The Roman Empire and its Germanic peoples, University of California Press, 1997, ISBN 9780520085114, p. 143.
    2. ^ The Goths by Jordanes. Translated by Charles Christopher Mierow. Chapter 35: Attila the Hun. http://www.romansonline.com/Src_Frame.asp?DocID=Gth_Goth_35
    3. ^ “Άττίλα/Αίίϋα.95 In 1955 I showed that ‘Αττίλας/Attila should be analyzed as a composite title consisting of *es ‘great, old’, *t4l· ‘sea, ocean’, and the suffix /a/. The stressed back syllabic til (= tlill) assimilated the front member es, so it became *as.96 The consonantic sequence s-t (aş til-) became, due to metathesis, t-s, which by assimilation resulted in tt.97 In 1981 I was able to establish a Danube-Bulgarian nominative-suffix /A/ from the consonantic stems.98 Recalling that Danube-Bulgarian was a Hunnic language, I can now add to the data in the article of 1955 the following: the Hunnic title attila is a nominative,(in /A/) form of attil- (< *etsil < *es til) with the meaning “the oceanic, universal [ruler];” cf. the title of the Pećeneg ruler Куря, i.e., Kür+ä,meaning “universal” (cf. no. 3).” Pritsak, Omeljan. 1982 “The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan.” Harvard Ukrainian Studies, vol. 6, pp. 428-476.[1]
    4. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). “Chapter 9.4”. The World of the Huns. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520015968. http://www.kroraina.com/huns/mh/mh_4.html
    5. ^ De Guignes, Joseph (1756-1758). Histoire générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares
    6. ^ “”Transylvania through the age of migrations””. Eliznik.org.uk. http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/trans-map/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
    7. ^ Calise, J.M.P. (2002). ‘Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History’. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p279, ISBN 0313322953
    8. ^ Peckham, D. Paulston, C. B. (1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Clevedon, UK : Multilingual Matters. p100, ISBN 1853594164
    9. ^ Canfield, R.L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p49, ISBN 0521522919
    10. ^ Frazee, C.A. (2002). Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans[citation needed]
    11. ^ Omeljan Pritsak (1982). “Hunnic names of the Attila clan”. Harvard Ukrainian Studies VI: 444. http://140.247.132.248/huri/pdf/hus_volumes/vVI_n4_dec1982.pdf
    12. ^ Alexander Vovin 2000
    13. ^ Howarth, Patrick (1995). Attila, King of the Huns. New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing. pp. 191–92. ISBN 9780760700334. http://books.google.com/?id=0vt_4oJLGzAC&pg=PA19&dq=horses%2Bhuns
    14. ^ Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History , 4th Edition, (HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 189
    15. ^ “Priscus of Panium: fragments from the Embassy to Attila”. 9.homepage.villanova.edu. http://www29.homepage.villanova.edu/christopher.haas/embassy.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
    16. ^ The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.
    17. ^ J.B. Bury, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, lecture IX (e-text)
    18. ^ The vitae are summarized in Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders (New York: Russell & Russell, 1967 reprint of the original 1880–89 edition), volume II pp. 128ff.
    19. ^ Catholic Online (2008-07-31). “St. Lupus – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online”. Catholic.org. http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=712. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
    20. ^ Later accounts of the battle site the Huns either already within the city or in the midst of storming it when the Roman-Visigoth army arrived; Jordanes mentions no such thing. See Bury, ibid.
    21. ^ Wikisource-logo.svgPope St. Leo I (the Great)” in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
    22. ^ E.A. Thompson, The Huns, revised with an afterword by Peter Heather, Blackwell Publishers, 1996. p.161
    23. ^ Thompson-Heather, pp. 160–161
    24. ^ a b Thompson-Heather, p.163
    25. ^ Hydatius, Chron Min. ii pp.26ff
    26. ^ Thompson, The Huns, p. 164.
    27. ^ Man, Nigel (2006). Attila. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 264. ISBN 9780312349394. http://books.google.com/?id=hF5mpUTy1z0C&pg=PA264&lpg=PA264&dq=esophageal+varices%2Battila
    28. ^ Marcellinus Comes, Chronicon (e-text), quoted in Hector Munro Chadwick: The Heroic Age (London, Cambridge University Press, 1926), p. 39 n. 1.
    29. ^ Volsunga Saga, Chapter 39; Poetic Edda, Atlamol En Grönlenzku, The Greenland Ballad of Atli
    30. ^ Babcock, Michael A. The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun, Berkley Books, 2005 ISBN 0-425-20272-0
    31. ^ HISTORY OF THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Edward Gibbon, Esq. With notes by the Rev. H. H. Milman. Volume Three, Complete Contents. 1782 (Written), 1845 (Revised) Chapter XXXV: Invasion By Attila.
    32. ^ “Medieval Sourcebook, Leo I and Attila”. Fordham.edu. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/attila2.html. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
    33. ^ Atlakvitha en grönlenzka Henry Adams Bellows’ translation and commentary
    34. ^ R. G. Finch (ed. and trans.), The Saga of the Volsungs (London: Nelson, 1965), available at [2]
    35. ^ Atlamol en grönlenzku Translation and commentary by Henry A. Bellows
    36. ^ Edmund Wright,Thomas Edmund Farnsworth Wright, A dictionary of world history, Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 9780199202478, p. 41. The invasion, which was likened to the action of Attila the Hun, put into effect Turkey’s scheme for the partition of Cyprus (Atilla Plan).

 

Primary sources

 

Historiography

    • Babcock, Michael A. (2005) The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun (Berkley Publishing Group, ISBN 0-425-20272-0)
    • Blockley, R.C. (1983) The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol. II (ISBN 0-905205-15-4). This is a collection of fragments from Priscus, Olympiodorus, and others, with original text and translation.
    • Gordon, C. D. (1960) The Age of Attila: Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0472061119). This is a translated collection, with commentary and annotation, of ancient writings on the subject, including Priscus.
    • Heather, Peter (2005) The Fall of the Roman Empire—A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195159543)
    • Howarth, Patrick (1994) Attila, King of the Huns: The Man and the Myth (ISBN 0786709308).
    • Maenchen-Helfen, J. Otto (1973) The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, ISBN 0520015967)
    • Man, John (2005) Attila: The Barbarian King Who Challenged Rome (Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-05291-9)
    • Thompson, E. A. (1948) A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0837176409). This is the authoritative English work on the subject. It was reprinted in 1999 as The Huns in the Peoples of Europe series (ISBN 0-631-21443-7). Thompson did not enter controversies over Hunnic origins and considers that Attila’s victories were achieved only when there was no concerted opposition.

 

External links

 

Jean-Yves Mitton

Name of naissanceJean-Yves Mitton
Nickname (s) Mitton, John Milton
Naissance1945
Toulouse
NationalitéFrançaise
Profession (s) cartoonist and comic strip writer
Jean-Yves Mitton, draughtsman and French comic writer, was born in 1945 in Toulouse.
Contents
1 Biography
2 Publications
2.1 Small formats
2.2 Albums
3 Biography
4 Internal link
5 External links
Biography
He arrived at Lyon in 1959, he enrolled at the fine arts after a shortened tuition. He entered the workshops of Editions Lug where it begins by retouching the foreign bands to comply with requests of the commission of censorship. Then, it creates its first planks in the humorous register embodying Popoff or Pim Pam Poum, but in realistic registry with Blek le Roc which draw 52 episodes and many blankets.
In 1980 he directed two episodes of the surfer of money with Marcel Navarro.
In 1981, he created Mikros a superhero under the pseudonym of John Milton in the pages of Mustang. Mikros will then in Titans when Mustang rechangera formula. For Lug, it will also think artist series of science fiction: Epsilon, Kronos, and Cosmo. He published also in this editor, in 1994, a collection of stories of science fiction by BD under the title tomorrow… monsters.
The buyout of Lug by Semic was will launch in the production of albums. First with François Corteggiani in 1987 with the white Archer for the newspaper of Mickey, then Noël and Marie for Pif Gadget. Always with Corteggiani, in 1990, he will resume the drawing of a dark series: silence and blood editions Glénat.
Then, he collaborates with Sun editions:
From 1991 to 2006, he animates the Vae victis series! Simon Rocca scenarios, 15 albums.
Other, 2003, it being directed by Félix Molinari in the series the survivors of the Atlantic and then it provides more than the scenario 6 other albums, il il des 6 à des 6 des 6 à à à, de autres à 2003, il étant réalisé par Félix Molinari de la série Les survivants de l’ Atlantique puis il n’ assure plus que le scénario des 6 autres albums, il des 6 à, dessin étant et scénarise Félix albums survivants puis drawing étant wrote Félix albums survivants and
From 1994 to 2000, he drew and wrote 6 albums of the barbarian Chronicles series.
From 1997 to 2008, for the editions Glénat, he wrote and drew: Quetzatcoalt, 7 volumes. In parallel, from 1998 to 2003, he wrote the series Attila my love for Designer Franck Bonnet, 6 albums.
In 2011, he produced his first album erotic hard X, for the Angel editions: Kzara or “Barbarian nights”.
Publications
small formats :  Blek le Roc.
Mikros.
Albums
Full author (writer and Illustrator):
Blackstar (1985 Editions LUG).
Tomorrow… the monsters (1990 SEMIC and 1994 editions SOLEIL).
The survivors of the Atlantic (3 albums (volumes 1-3 of 9) from 1992 to 1993 editions SOLEIL).
Chronic barbarians (6 albums from 1994 to 2000 editions SOLEIL).
Quetzalcoatl (7 albums from 1997 to 2008 editions GLENAT).
Mikros (2 albums 1998 editions blood of ink).
Ben Hur (4 albums of 2008 and 2010 editions Delcourt).
Kzara or “the barbaric nights” (2011 edition Angel).
Fertilization (2011 editions SAGA UITGAVEN).
As Illustrator:
Umm white dolphin (19 albums from 1972 to 1973 editions LUG).
History of Armenia (1980 editions FRA.) NOR. (SEROUND).
Noël and Marie (1989 editions MESSIDOR – the FARANDOLE).
Silence and blood (7 albums (volumes 4-10 of 14) from 1990 to 1996 editions GLENAT).
The white Archer (2 albums in 1998 editions SOLEIL).
VAE victis! (15 albums from 1991 to 2006 editions SOLEIL).
Mikros (2007 editions ORGANIC COMIX).
As screenwriter:
Attila… my love (6 albums from 1998 to 2003 Editions GLENAT).
The survivors of the Atlantic (6 albums (volumes 4 to 9 of 9) from 1997 to 2003 Editions SOLEIL).
Colorado (4 albums from 2003 to 2010 editions DARIC (all volumes) and CARPE DIEM (tome 1) Edition).
Gilgamesh (1996 editions SOLEIL).
Makers of clouds (1 album (vol. 1 of 2) 1998 editions E.R.C bolt).
The houseguest adventures of Rabelais (2 albums of 2001 and 2002 editions HORS COLLECTION).
Papoose (2 albums from 2002 to 2006 editions JET STREAM (volume 1) and (volume 2) MPF).
The last kamikaze (9 albums from 2006 to 2009 editions SOLEIL).
Biography
Jean-Louis Cartillier and Thierry Martinet (texts), François Corteggiani (Preface), Jean-Yves Mitton (illustrations), interviews with Jean-Yves Mitton, Mediacom, 1999, ISBN 2970020408;
Internal link : Jean-Yves Mitton and his guitar to the BD Festival in Beaujolais

Franck Bonnet

He was born on August 16, 1964 in Troyes.
Biography
It is in 1994 that Franck Bonnet enters the Court of the great comic, after “leg” in a Trojan fanzine (which it is originating from), which he received in 1991 the price of the best designer (firearms) festival international de la BD de Grenoble amateur. His meeting with Didier Van Cauwelaert takes place through Jacques Pessis, Director literary editions Dargaud. It will allow first collaboration on the “Friends of my wife” film, directed by the latter, then the Vanity Benz series.
In 1997, at age 34, is at a show in the book he Jean-Yves Mitton meeting who offers him to work on one of the scenarios. Soon their work is in place, then begins the series Attila… mon amour, editions Glénat.
With the VELL series ‘, collection Grafica, of which the first volume was published in 2004, he began his major and most personal work, because it is both the author designs, but also the scenario “I have comic especially for telling stories,” says t – he himself. series includes three volumes.
In 2006, editions Glénat him offer to work with the screenwriter Jean-claude Bartoll, this collaboration was born 3 volumes of the TNO series for the investigation collection.
Born of his passion for the Navy of the early 19th century, appears in 2009 the series pirates of Barataria, a realistic adventure in the Navy at this time, scripted by Marc Bourgne.

Publications

Pirates of Barataria (ed.) (Glénat)
A great pirate saga blessed by the winds offshore and adventure. Under the wind frissonnant of the imagination of Marc Bourgne, already author of the superb Redbeard Dargaud, and Franck Bonnet, embark on a saga of adventure to the heady scents of history and intrigue. Between the Epervier documentary accuracy and Pirates of the Caribbean for the action at will. A magnificent series full of violence, love and thrill in the odours of spray and the slamming of Pavilion pirate.
New Orleans (2009)
Cartagena (2010)
Large-Isle (2010)
to be published: Ocean (2011)
Vell’a (ed.) (Glénat)
The proposed story is not that of an insane world, degraded by religion, the desire for profit, the attraction of power, inclined to self-destruct. proposed history is that of Tetra, Virgin planet in its nature, where religion is embryonic, where still reign force, the honour and pride, a world of beings pragmatic, but where, all the evils, human birth already extends its power over women.
The mark (2004)
The first believer (2005)
An Ra Sé (2006)
Attila… my love (ed.) (Glénat)
The true history of the Huns driven and slightly eroticized by Jean-Yves Mitton.
1. The Wolf Lupa (1998)
2. The doors of iron (1999)
3. The master of the Danube (2000)
4. The scourge of God (2001)
5. Scorched-earth (2002)
6. See Rome and die (2003)
TNO (ed.) (Glénat)
TNO is an NGO for protection and defence of the environment with an information service conducted by a scientist, an ex-journaliste and a former specialist barbouze of twisted blows. Their mission: preservation of Terra Nostra… in other words our land!
The triangle of the thirst (2006)
Ebola (2007)
Wood for war (2008)
Vanity Benz (ed.) (Dargaud)
Cuba Cola (1995)
The child who headed the Earth (1996)
Top of Venice (1996)
Little big bang (1998)